Before discussing the ZigBee Architecture let’s begin with understanding of ZigBee Standard (802.15.4). ZigBee architecture characteristics are parallel with Bluetooth; I said parallel not replacing it.
Considering the ZigBee standard this will show you the basic features of ZigBee technology.
IEEE 802.15.4 specification;
802 = networking group
15 = wireless network
4 = low data rate consuming less power
Comprehensions of ZigBee architecture help you better understand the function of remote controlling and monitoring. ZigBee architecture is based on the following blocks. The upper layer is application layer with nodes to attach the end device and lower is the data / link layer make bridge in between both upper and lower layers there is network layer to carry out the function. This whole model is known as stack as all the layers form a stack.
The ZigBee stack architecture is based on three major components; ZigBee Physical data/link level, ZigBee network layers and ZigBee Application support layer.
ZigBee data / link level is comprises of two layers. One is physical layer (PHY) and the other is Media Access Control (MAC) sub layer. Physical layer is responsible for sending and receiving the data from resource. Media Access is responsible for networking and acts as a sensor try not to collide hence initiate the command.
ZigBee network layers adhere to function by enabling the correct use of MAC and act like a bridge by making networks based on topology by using between application layer and ZigBee data / link level. These ZigBee network layers are responsible for networking and security matters. It enables a network and manage end joining or leaving. It is able to find another route in case of not availability of the immediate route and switch to the nearby route.
Application support sub-layer is responsible for input and output though from end device. It fulfills the data and management services. As the name implies that it supports applications and performs services for endpoints and ZigBee device objects.
Application Objects are the devices for which the whole ZigBee architecture is designed. These application objects are called endpoints. These application objects are placed at the top position in ZigBee stack architecture.
Application objects are managed and monitored by Zigbee device object (ZDO). Zigbee device object initiates the process of Data / Link layer by adopting the specific network topology and decides its function like coordinator, router or end device.
The Zigbee stack architecture supplies security measurements. It distributes its services into different layers MAC, APS and NWK securing the data loss hence provides multi level security.