Routing protocol used to filter data on a network and specify how routers exchange information with each other. Broadcasting information makes enable them to select routers than any two nodes on a network. Routing algorithms make choice of the route because each router has superior knowledge only of networks closed to its directly. Routing protocol first distribute information between instant neighbors and then all through the network. By using this method router get information about topology of the network.
The routing protocol is operating at the third layer of OSI model. The main uniqueness of routing protocols is the method in which they also avoid routing loops from breaking them up if they perform. They also select chosen routes by using information about hop expenditure.
Techniques of routing protocols
There are three types of routings protocol techniques
Distance- vector Routing Protocol
Distance- vector routing protocol technique use distance which specifies the route to any link in the interconnection network to conclude the best route. Every selected route throws information to neighbor to obtain distance node. More bandwidth is the main problem of distance vector routing protocol to process information. There re some other problem such as poorer metric of neighbor, hold down timer, routing loop, solutions, split horizon etc. The example of distance vector is RIP, and IGRP.
Link –state Routing Protocol
On the topology of network link state maintain a complex database. It uses (LSA) to promote the routing data from routers. At the top of tree link state is building up a topological database with them. Link–state routing protocol also have some problems such as need more power to communicate, enough memory to store LSA, updating of link state. Link state routing protocol examples are OSPF, BGP, and EGP.
Hybrid routing Protocol
Hybrid routing Protocol the combination of balance and hybrid and use distance vector technique for accurate. It is responsible to report information about routing when any changes occur in topology. Hybrid routing protocol also enhance interior gateway routing protocol. Hybrid examples are IS-IS, EIGRP.