What is IP Subnetting

IP subnetting is an important part of a network, you need to configure IP address to the server with the help of network administrator. Configuring this IP address need following details;

  • IP Address
  • Subnet mask
  • Default gateway

A specific IP is allocated to each computer with two prominent parts one part shows network and the other shows host. Subnet mask is used to identify the host and network address while default gateway is that router which is responsible for the networking.
Now when a company needs to increase its working unit under one network by using the specific IP they can further divide the IP. This is known as IP subnetting. Breaking one bigger network into smaller networks is done by splitting one allocated IP into smaller unit and that is IP subnetting. In a bigger network more adopters and hosts are used to increase the number of working units. Here subnet mask comes up to identify the right host by providing the network’s and host’s IDs.

Look at the IP address for example of a class C
192.168.1.0
Here 1 is the network ID and 0 is the host ID. In a closed network environment network ID does not change as it works like an ancestor while host ID for each computer is unique and it must be unique otherwise allotting the same host ID will affect the networking process. The IP subnetting continues to up to the saturation level as per different level of classes.

  • The subnetting is useful as it increases the security, and
  • It improves the performance by maintaining the traffic.
  • It also improves the efficiency of network by splitting it into smaller units with low pressure.

IP addresses are of three classes depending on which level they have to work.
Class A- large companies use it for more than 16 millions hosts
Class B- resides more than 16 thousands hosts
Class C- enables 254 hosts

It must be clear that every class has a default subnet mask. As mentioned above subnet mask is used to identify network ID and host ID. A subnet is made by further splitting the host part of IP. Subnet mask is similar to IP address based on 32-bits divided into four groups of 8-bits each. It helps to reduce the traffic and provides privacy hence the better output.
IP subnetting is possible in many different ways according to its need. Where this is useful to acquire a flexible subnet mask there comes different problems or complexities to achieve this subnet mask. Therefore it is necessary to know what type of networking is useful in a certain environment or the networking can be collapsed into nothing. Two of them are very common;

  • Classful IP subnetting

The network designs on the base of IP showing the network ID and host ID is known as classful IP Addresses as using the default subnet mask. In this type of subnetting the network ID works as combination lock. It provides comparatively simple and understandable subnetting.

  • Classless IP subnetting

IP subnetting is a little bit confusing if attention is not paid on the distribution of IP Address with adopted subnet mask other than default one is used to develop classless IP Addresses. Here like classful IP Addresses network ID is lock but unlike classful IP Addresses the Host ID is further divided into two groups of subnet ID and Host ID by borrowing bits from Host ID. An amazing opportunity to achieve a wide network system covering all the departments of a company while no need of extra expenditure and availability of private environment.

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