Cognitive Radio

Cognitive radio is a wireless communication tool. It is used to take maximum advantage of the available communication channels. It is radio equipment known as transceiver which helps to identify the maximum capacity to send and receive the signals. It is a sort of channel detection tool to make the communication efficient and effective. It is the efficient manager of communication channels as which is preoccupied and which is not. Furthermore, it helps to utilize the free channels and reduces the resistance and prevent any hindrance comes in the way of broadcasting.

In a concise way, Cognitive Radio is a technology which helps to improve the spectrum bandwidth. While deploying in a certain area it performs functions as;

  • Detect the area of communication
  • Tell about the user’s occupied channels and non-occupied channels
  • Transcript the signals
  • Identify any wireless device in the nearer locality
  • Provide information about the unused bandwidth

Cognitive Radio takes into account two different scenarios;

  • It acts like a full cognitive radio which is independent equipment for wireless communication to perform multiple tasks.


  • It acts like an electric eye to monitor the available space in the radio spectrum.

However, to a certain extent it is used for optimizing the bandwidth for new users with positive results.


Cognitive Radio uses various techniques to perform the function of channel detection.

Detect through Transmitter

It is capable of identifying the transmitter signals far or near. It performs this job vigilantly in multidimensional ways. These can be adjacent course recognition, capacity recognition, and recognizes the cyclostationary characteristics.

Cooperative Detection

This is the method used in spectrum sensing. It provides the information about the specific user out of many users. It minimizes the chances of interference among many users. This is known as interference based detection.

Spectrum Management

It manages the distribution of many channels in the available spectrum. It tries to accomplish the spectrum with number of users. This function is executed through range analysis or range decision to improve the service.

Spectrum Mobility

In this technique available spectrum is used in the best possible way to meet the frequency demand. For this spectrum can be exchanged between different users with the change in frequency. This is known as frequency mobility which eases the communication in very condition.

 Spectrum Sharing

Cognitive Radio harmonizes the spectrum shared among many users. It gives flexibility to the spectrum to allow many channels to reside. Open spectrum offers challenge to cognitive radio for spectrum sharing same is the case with media access control.


Broadcasting channels through radio requires specific frequency to proceed. Antenna is used to cover the range for receiving the channels. This antenna identifies the signals in range by sensing the frequency. Cognitive radio helps to identify the frequency spread in the surrounding. There are many different frequencies strike the transceiver. You set your on channel by switching on the receiver and match the frequency and the transmission completes. Different other radioactive devices can interrupt your channels frequently as it detects every incoming signal in the given spectrum. Diverting the call to another frequency will clear the channel.


It is used to maximize the bandwidth.

It is used to reside every nearby channel.

It establishes connection with the nearby available spectrum to connect.

It allows different networks to exchange and cooperate.

It improves the signals to make the transmission clearer.


Cognitive Radio has a potential future as it is helping in prospering wireless communication to large extent. It is crossing the boundaries to support any upcoming channels to survive. It supports the connectivity and accessibility in every condition.

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