Second generation (2g) telephone technology is based on GSM or in other words global system for mobile communication. Second generation was launched in Finland in the year 1991.
How 2G works
2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). 2G technology is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.
2G Technologies (Second Generation Technologies)
Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). TDMA allows for the division of signal into time slots. CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel. Different TDMA technologies are GSM, PDC, iDEN, iS-136.CDMA technology is IS-95. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile, in Europe. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. Although this technology originates from the Europe, but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countries of the world’s is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone, other than the voice call or conference. This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at the same time.
Another use of this technology is the availability of international emergency numbers, which can be used by international users anytime without having to know the local emergency numbers. PDC or personal digital cellular technology was developed in Japan, and is exclusively used in JAPAN as well. PDC uses 25 KHz frequency. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993.integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA, as a major mobile technology. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz.i DEN allows three or six user per mobile channel.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system. It is also known as digital AMPS. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. However now it is in the declining phase. This technology is facing a strong competition by GSM technologies. Now the network carriers have adopted GSM and other CDMA 2000 technologies at large. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. It is most famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network).
Benefits of 2G technology (Second Generation)
Digital signals require consume less battery power, so it helps mobile batteries to last long. Digital coding improves the voice clarity and reduces noise in the line. Digital signals are considered environment friendly. The use of digital data service assists mobile network operators to introduce short message service over the cellular phones. Digital encryption has provided secrecy and safety to the data and voice calls. The use of 2G technology requires strong digital signals to help mobile phones work. If there is no network coverage in any specific area, digital signals would be weak.